Economy of China

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Contrary to other tribute systems around the world, the Chinese tributary system consisted almost entirely of mutually-beneficial economic relationships, [1] and member states of the system were politically autonomous and, in almost all cases, independent as well. Through the system, which facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange, the various dynasties of China refer to " Heaven Dynasty " "deeply influenced the culture of the peripheral countries and also drew them into a China-centered, or " sino-centric " , international order.

The term tribute system is a Western invention. There was no Chinese word for what scholars consider the tribute system today, nor did East Asian contemporaries recognize it as a distinct institution or a "system. The traditional Chinese international structure was different from many other systems developed in other parts of the world. First, it was premised on the belief that China was the cultural center of the world and that foreigners were "less civilized" or "barbarians.

In return, they could trade for a specified number of days at border points designated by Beijing. Since neighboring Asian states were required to pay tribute to establish economic relations with the Chinese court, there was little reason for the Chinese to doubt their predominance in the world order. Even the Europeans, who first entered the Chinese waters as early as the 16th century, had submitted to trade within the highly restrictive Chinese system. Confucianism and the Mandate of Heaven provided the ideological foundations for the tribute system.

Emperor Han Wudi r. Some scholars have argued that the Chinese tributary system consisted almost entirely of mutually-beneficial economic relationships, [12] and member states of the system were politically autonomous and, in almost all cases, independent as well.

Kingdoms along China's North-Western Frontier often struggled with the Imperial tributary system, and Beijing's rejection of tribute missions, and the lavish gifts and benefits gained, exacerbated, and then helped soothe the drawn-out and complex conflicts now known as the Ming-Turpan Border Wars.

Mansur then abandoned large-scale military expeditions, though he continued to sanction raids on China to attain his objectives. Instead he offered tribute, occasionally dispatching a dozen or more embassies a year.

He was apparently eager to obtain the Chinese gifts granted to foreign embassies, and therefore limited his incursions. Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet, although outside China Proper , were still considered within Chinese jurisdiction, and Beijing had the right to post agents and armed forces there. The Ming dynasty declined to intervene under the isolationist and anti-interventionist Hongwu Emperor when the Vietnamese attacked Champa , giving only a rebuke. Both Vietnam and Champa were tributary states.

The investiture of rulers of tributary nations with titles by Chinese envoys was part of the system. Warfare between tributary states was arbitrated by the Chinese emperor. Malacca and Vietnam were both tributaries to China. Malacca sent envoys to China again in to inform the Chinese that while going back to Malacca in from a trip to China, the Vietnamese attacked them, castrating the young and enslaving them.

The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was in control of Champa and also that the Vietnamese sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back because of a lack of permission from the Chinese to engage in war. The Chinese Emperor scolded them, ordering the Malaccans to strike back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked. The Ryukyu Kingdom was a tributary state to the Ming dynasty then the Qing dynasty. It was attacked by Japan in and became a vassal state of the Satsuma clan, but it was allowed to continue its existing tributary relation with China to allow for indirect Japanese trade with China.

Efforts were made to obscure Satsuma's domination of Ryukyu from the Chinese Court to ensure the continuation of trade and diplomacy, since China refused to conduct formal relations or trade with Japan at the time. Thailand was always subordinate to China as a vassal or a tributary state since the Sui dynasty until the Taiping Rebellion of the late Qing dynasty in the midth century.

The tributary system remained as the primary instrument of diplomatic exchange throughout the Imperial era until the final Qing dynasty fell and China became a republic in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of tributaries of Imperial China.

China and the Developing World: Beijing's Strategy for the Twenty-First Century. Retrieved May 28, The Chinese Journal of International Politics. East Asia at the Center: Four Years of Engagement with the World. Columbia University Press, Past and Present in China's Foreign Policy: From "Tribute System" to "Peaceful Rise". The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty illustrated ed.

Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: Retrieved 19 July Harvard Univ Asia Center. Vietnam and the Chinese model: Retrieved June 20, Vohra, Ranbir , China's Path to Modernization: A Historical Review from to the Present 3rd ed. Han dynasty , 2 3rd ed. In Goodrich, L Carrington. Retrieved June 24, Retrieved from " https: Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text.

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