Numeric Base Converter

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This command provides facilities for manipulating binary data. The subcommand binary format creates a binary string from normal Tcl values.

For example, given the values 16 and 22, on a bit architecture, it might produce an 8-byte binary string consisting of two 4-byte integers, one for each of the numbers. The subcommand binary scandoes the opposite: The binary encode and binary decode subcommands convert binary data to or from string encodings such as base64 used in MIME messages for example. When encoding binary data as a readable string, the starting binary data is passed to the binary encode command, together with the name of the encoding to use and any encoding-specific options desired.

Data which has been encoded can be converted back to binary form using binary decode. The following formats and options are supported. The binary format command generates a binary string whose layout is specified by the formatString and whose contents come from the additional arguments. The resulting binary value is returned. The formatString consists of a sequence of zero or more field specifiers separated by zero or more spaces. Each field specifier is a single type character followed by an optional flag character followed by an optional numeric count.

Most field specifiers consume one argument to obtain the value to be formatted. The type character specifies how the value is to be formatted. The count typically indicates how many items of the specified type are taken from the value. If the number of arguments does not match the number of fields in the format string that consume arguments, then an error is generated.

The flag character is ignored for binary format. Convert the number 244 into binary options first argument is a list of four numbers, but because of the count of 3 for the associated field specifier, only the first three will be used. The second argument is associated with the second field specifier.

The resulting binary string contains the four numbers 1. Each type-count pair moves an imaginary cursor through the binary data, storing bytes at the current position and advancing the cursor to just after the last byte stored. The cursor is initially at position 0 at the beginning of the data. The type convert the number 244 into binary options be any one of the following characters:.

Contrast these last two with:. The binary scan command parses fields from a binary string, convert the number 244 into binary options the number of conversions performed.

String gives the input bytes to be parsed one byte per character, and characters not representable as a byte have their high bits chopped and formatString indicates how to parse it. Each varName gives the name of a variable; when a field is scanned from string the result is assigned to the corresponding variable. As with binary formatthe formatString consists of a sequence of zero or more field specifiers separated by zero or more spaces.

Most field specifiers consume one argument to obtain the variable into which the scanned values should be placed. The type character specifies how the binary data is to be interpreted. The count typically indicates how many items of the specified type are taken from the data. If there are not enough bytes left after the current cursor position to satisfy the current field specifier, then the corresponding variable is left untouched and binary scan returns immediately with the number of variables that were set.

If there are not enough arguments for all of the fields in the format string that consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character "u" may be given to cause some types to be read as unsigned values.

The flag is accepted for all field types but is ignored for non-integer fields. A similar example as with binary format should explain the relation between field specifiers and arguments in case of the binary scan subcommand:. This command provided the binary string in the variable bytes is long enough assigns a list of three integers to the variable first and assigns a single value to the variable second. If bytes contains fewer than 8 bytes i. It is important to note that the csand S and i and I on 64bit systems will be scanned into long data size values.

In doing this, values that have their high bit set 0x80 for chars, 0x for shorts, 0x for intswill be sign extended. Thus the following will occur:. If you require unsigned values you can include the "u" flag character following the field type. For example, to read an unsigned short value:. Each type-count pair moves an imaginary cursor through the binary data, reading bytes from the current position.

Note that most code that wishes to parse the hexadecimal digits from multiple bytes in order should use the H format. Note that the integers returned are signed, but they can be converted to unsigned 8-bit quantities using an expression like:. Note that the integers returned are signed, but they can be converted to unsigned bit quantities using an expression like:.

Note that the integers returned are signed and cannot be represented by Tcl as unsigned values. The rRq and Q conversions will only work reliably for transferring data between computers which are all using IEEE floating point representations. This is very common, but not universal. To transfer floating-point numbers portably between all architectures, use their textual representation as produced by format instead.

This is a procedure to write a Tcl string to a binary-encoded channel as UTF-8 data preceded by a length word:.

This procedure reads a string from a channel that was written by the previously presented writeString procedure:. This converts the contents of a file named in the variable filename to base64 and prints them:. It has the distinction of being able to be rewrapped arbitrarily without losing information. During encoding, the following options are supported: By default, lines are not split.

During decoding, the following options are supported: Otherwise it ignores them. No options are supported during encoding. Here is a small example to clarify the relation between the field specifiers and convert the number 244 into binary options arguments: The type may be any one of the following characters: Every character is taken as modulo i.

If arg has fewer than count bytes, then additional zero bytes are used to pad out the field. If arg is longer than the specified length, the extra convert the number 244 into binary options will be ignored.

If count is omitted, then one character will be formatted. Contrast these last two with: A This form is the same as a except that spaces are used for padding instead of nulls.

Arg must contain a sequence of 1 and 0 characters. The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the bits being formatted in low-to-high order within each byte. If arg has fewer than count digits, then zeros will be used for the remaining bits. If arg has more than the specified number of digits, the extra digits will be ignored. If count is omitted, then one digit will be formatted. If the number of bits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the remaining convert the number 244 into binary options of the last byte will be zeros.

B This form is the same as b except that the bits are stored in high-to-low order within each byte. H Stores a string of count hexadecimal digits in high-to-low within each byte in the output string.

The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the hex digits being formatted in high-to-low order within each byte. If arg has fewer than count digits, then zeros will be used for the remaining digits. If the number of digits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the remaining bits of the last byte will be zeros.

This is seldom required. If no count is specified, then arg must consist of an integer value. If count is specified, arg must consist of a list containing at least that many integers.

The low-order 8 bits of each integer are stored as a one-byte value at the cursor position. If the number of elements in the list is greater than countthen the extra elements are ignored. Convert the number 244 into binary options low-order bits of each integer are stored as a two-byte value at the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.

S This form is the same as s except that it stores one or more bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string.

The low-order bits of each integer are stored as a four-byte value at the cursor position with the least significant convert the number 244 into binary options stored first. The low-order bits of each integer are stored as an eight-byte value at the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.

For example, binary format w will return the string HelloTcl W This form is the same as w except that it stores one convert the number 244 into binary options more one or more bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string. For example, binary format Convert the number 244 into binary options will return the string BigEndian m This form mnemonically the mirror of w is the same as w and W except that it stores the bit integers in the output string in the native byte order of the machine where the Tcl script is convert the number 244 into binary options.

This representation is not portable across architectures, so it should not be used to communicate floating point numbers across the network. The size of a floating point number may vary across architectures, so the number of bytes that are generated may vary.

Because Tcl uses double-precision floating point numbers internally, there may be some loss of precision in the conversion to single-precision. This conversion only produces meaningful output when used on machines which use the IEEE floating point representation very common, but not universal.

R This form is the same as r except that it stores the single-precision floating point numbers in big-endian order. Q This form is the same as q except that it stores the double-precision floating point numbers in big-endian order.

If count is not specified, stores one null byte. This type does not consume an argument. X Moves the cursor back count bytes in the output string.

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Writes the data frame to file in the Stata binary format. Does not write array variables unless they can be drop -ed to a vector. The major difference between supported file formats in Stata versions is that version 7. The abbreviate function is used to trim variable names to the permitted length. A warning is given if this is needed and it is an error for the abbreviated names not to be unique. Each version of Stata is claimed to be able to read all earlier formats.

The columns in the data frame become variables in the Stata data set. Missing values are handled correctly. There are four options for handling factors. This last used to be the only available method and is provided largely for backwards compatibility.

If the "datalabel" attribute contains a string, it is written out as the dataset label otherwise the dataset label is "Written by R.

This attribute should contain a list where each element is string vector of length three. The second element contains the characeristic name. The third contains the associated data. Otherwise the variable names are repeated as variable labels. Up to bytes are allowed in character data, and longer strings will be truncated with a warning. Stata uses some large numerical values to represent missing values. This function does not currently check, and hence integers greater than and doubles greater than 8.

Unless disabled by argument convert. For date-time objects this may lose information. Stata can be told that these are dates by. Stata's comments on the first route are at http: