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When a pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat member experiences illnesses, household may be subject to catastrophic health spending. Disabling condition associated with the illnesses also entails significant loss of income due to reduced labor supply Dinku ; Gertler and Gruber Empirical evidence from developing countries where the coverage of health insurance is still limited and out-of-pocket OOP payment remains the primary way to access health care suggests that households are unable to pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat insure their income against losses from moderate and severe health shocks Alam and Mahal Even if they are able to smooth their income losses, it might be accomplished through strategies that worsen vulnerability, including increased loans, asset sales and decreased investment in children's education Mitra et al.

Children's education has been widely documented as being vulnerable to household's economic and demographic shocks Fabre and Pallage ; Duryea et al.

Resource-constrained households often have to undertake intra-household risk sharing in order to cope with the shocks. In health shocks context, illnesses experienced by parents may adversely affect children's education in several ways. Firstly, a parent's health shocks may reduce households' ability to afford children education due to increased medical cost and decreased income.

Secondly, when a parent is ill, pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat may need cheap labor to substitute parents missed work. One may argue that children's labor supply cannot perfectly substitute their parent's.

However, it is worth noting that in developing 2 countries where considerable amount of jobs constitutes to informal and agriculture works, children are more likely to substitute parent's work compared to children in developed countries. Lastly, even if the parents are able to afford children education following an illness, household may still have to withdraw their children from school to meet household's labor demand.

Withdrawing children from school in response to any economic and demographic shocks has been considered as a costly risk-coping strategy because it reduces children's human capital accumulation which in its turn will decrease children's future earnings Alam Moreover, sending children to participate in labor market is detrimental to children's development.

Child labor pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat been found as being vulnerable to hazardous working condition which is harmful to children's physical and mental development Wolff and Maliki In addition, child labor itself also has been associated with reduced schooling. Even if the working children manage to stay in school, participation in labor market may reduce their skills performance and slow down their grade progression Aldobrandini ; Sim et al.

Several empirical studies have suggested that parental health shocks indeed adversely affect children's education. A study by Dhanaraj of state Andhra Pradesh in India found that health shocks to poorer parents induce temporary delay in primary school enrollment and reduce school attainment by 0. Similar results were also found by Alam who studied the impact of parental health shocks among primary school-age children in Tanzania. In his findings, only pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat health shocks significantly reduce household's ability to afford education 3 which in the end reduces children's chance to complete primary school and leads to fewer years of schooling.

In addition to their negative impacts to children's education, parents' health shocks also have been found to increase the prevalence of child pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat. Using data from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bratti and Mendola found that in order to cover higher health expenditure following mother's health shocks, children are more likely to participate in employment.

Liuon the other hand, found that in the face of parents' illness, households in rural China are able to smooth consumption by not only dropping children out of school but also using their labor supply.

The similar finding also raised by Dinku who found that children in Ethiopia tend to increase time spent on domestic work in response to mother's illnesses.

Indonesian households who remain put out-of-pocket spending as the primary means to access health service is liable to the negative impact of health shocks.

Studies have suggested that illnesses among adult family members in Indonesia, particularly the one that affects physical functioning, have negatively affected household's consumptions Gertler and Gruber ; Nguyet and Mangyo This effect comes pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat a significant surge in out-of-pocket health spending which disproportionately affects poor and rural households Sparrow et al. In response to such health shocks, poor households 4 in Indonesia tend pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat and draw form buffers, such as savings and assets, a strategy which infers potential negative long term effects Sparrow et al.

Furthermore, empirical evidence also has indicated that children's education in Indonesia is vulnerable to risks and shocks. Fitzsimons suggested that children's education in Indonesia is prone to village-level risks, whereas Modena indicated that children's schooling tends to be compromised in the face of household's shocks. She found that as a consequence of negative income shocks, children in rural Indonesia are less likely to attend junior and senior high school. In addition, children's schooling in Indonesia also seems being affected pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat weather-related shocks.

Korkeala who studied the impact of weather shocks among Indonesia's farmer households found that riskier distribution of rainfall contributes to children's delay to enter elementary school. Considering the vast empirical evidence on the adverse effects of health shocks and noting the fact that children's education in Indonesia has been vulnerable to risks, this paper aims to investigate the link between parental health shocks and children's education using Indonesian data.

Specifically, this paper tries to answer the question of whether pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat health shocks affect expenditure spent on children education and whether they affect children's school enrollment. Moreover, to examine intra-household labor substitution, children's time allocation following parent's illness, such as children's involvement in labor market and household works will also be investigated.

The investigation on the impact of parental health shocks on children's education and children's employment is important for two main reasons. First, from theoretical standpoint, it contributes to the growing body of knowledge of child 5 labor and risk-coping literatures. Moreover, study on this topic helps to better understand how parental health shocks could affect intra-household labor allocation and human capital investment on children.

Second, in light of increasing efforts taken by government in many developing countries to provide social assistances and expand the coverage of health insurance, findings from this study are pivotal in answering critical policy questions. This study puts several contributions. First, it addresses gap in empirical evidence. Despite of abundant literatures discussing household's coping mechanisms in response to health shocks using Indonesian data Modena ; Genoni ; Sparrow et al. This would be the first study on such topic using Indonesian data.

Second, by exploiting longitudinal survey from the Indonesian Family Life Survey IFLSthis study uses child fixed effects estimate which addresses concerns on individual and household unobserved heterogeneity that potentially bias the analysis using cross sectional data.

Third, benefitting from rich information available in IFLS, this study is able to address problem caused by subjective health indicators by employing non- subjective health indicators, such as days of sickness and Activities of Daily Living ADL index. Moreover, this rich data also enriches the discussion of this paper by extending the analysis to different educational and child labor outcomes, as well analysis on different age-cohort, birth order and income groups.

The structure of the paper is as follows: Section 2 highlights theoretical foundations, past literatures and country's context of this research. Section 3 6 discusses empirical method and data. Section 4 presents statistical descriptive and results. Section 5 concludes the discussion. Do parent's health shocks affect children's education outcomes?

Do parent's health shocks induce child labor? The findings are expected to help better understand the risk-coping strategies taken by Indonesian households, particularly in explaining parent's behavior towards investment on children education and intra- household labor allocation in the face of health shocks.

This model posits that when the market is complete, households are able to separate consumption and investment decision. Parents are assumed to maximize children's welfare when no reduction in their own consumption or leisure is entailed. In such scenario, human capital investment in children does not depend on parents' assets or earnings because parents are able to borrow whatever is necessary to maximize their children's future net income.

Becker and Tomes However, when the financial market is incomplete, households particularly the poor are unable borrow. In this case, the separability assumption does not hold in which human capital investment in children is now dependent to parents' resources and earnings.

In this situation, parents finance their children's education either by selling assets, by reducing consumption, or by raising labor-force activities of the children. The consumption reduction would raise its marginal utility relative to marginal utility of resource invested in children which consequently would discourage expenditure spent on children Becker and Tomes Therefore, children from resource-constrained households, particularly in developing countries where financial market is far from perfect, are expected to be more affected by health shocks experienced by their parents.

In their model, children's school enrollment is determined in the following process: The first variables are money " and time " that parents invested on their children's education. Parents are expected to pay for tuition fee and other school expenses as well spending time with children, i. Children's unobservable characteristics such as inherited ability " and parents' intertemporal discount rate "which in this model are assumed to be fixed across time, are also important in determining children's school enrollment.

As noted by Becker and Tomeschildren with higher ability have a higher return on education, therefore parents are more likely to invest more money and time to the children who have higher ability. Intertemporal discount rate reflects the tendency of people to discount rewards as they approach a temporal horizon in the future or the past. There is a widely acceptable hypothesis which suggests that people with higher temporal discount rate tend to make unhealthy choice because they devalue delayed rewards Story et al.

The amount of money and time invested to the children's education is an outcome of the optimal parents' choice with respect to time and budget constraint. Parents' money and time are determined by various factors as indicated by the following functions: Parents' health condition " also affects children's schooling as it reduces income and time available for the children's education. Furthermore, parents' current health is the result of past investment which depends on their time variant and time invariant characteristics, their discount rate and random health shocks ".

Health condition " in equation 5 is endogenous with respect to children's education because both of them depend on the same unobservable factors, the intertemporal discount rate ". Parents with high discount rate are more likely to 10 engage in self-damaging behavior where at the same pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat they also invest less on children education. For that reason, ordinary least square OLS estimation on the effect of parental health shocks to children's education pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat " in equation 5 will give inconsistent pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat.

To deal with this situation, Bratti and Mendola suggest a child fixed effects estimation which captures the impact of all children and parents' time-invariant characteristics both observable " and the unobservable ones ;".

After controlling parents' " and children's " time-varying characteristics, the only remaining variation in parents' health status to be pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat is the one coming from health shocks "which in this model are assumed to be exogenous. Therefore, by employing child fixed effects estimation on equation 5the causal relationship between parental health shocks and children's schooling can be obtained Bratti and Mendola This section aims to clarify the definitions as well as to discuss some instrumental aspects of health shocks and child labor that are relevant with the context of this study.

Several health measures have been commonly used for health shocks in past literatures Currie and Madrian Each of health indicators mentioned above has specific strengths and drawbacks depending on the availability of the data and its objectivity in capturing respondents' health conditions. Data availability is critical in determining what health measurements that will be used in the analysis since only few representative surveys from developing countries that track different health aspects and severity levels over time Mitra et al.

Self pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat health is one of the most popular measurement used in empirical studies because it is available in almost all health surveys. Aside from self assessed health, other health measurements such as days of sickness, chronic illness and activities of daily living have also been widely used pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat recent studies, most notably by Bratti and MendolaAlamLiuNguyet and MangyoGertler and Gruberto name a few.

It is important to note that when even the data on health indicators are available, those indicators may suffer from endogeneity problem Bratti and Mendola ; Mitra et al. The endogeneity may potentially arise because of random or systematic measurement of error in health measurements that may be correlated with characteristics that included in the regression.

Lindelow and Wagstaff suggest a possibilty of correlation between potential measurement of errors in self health assessments with independent variables of interest because perceptions about own health status are likely to be influenced by education, contact with the health systems, and other factors related to independent variables. Other 12 health indicator such as utilization of medical care is also prone to endogeneity since utilization of health facilities is most likely correlated with health preferences and pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat proximity of healthcare facilities.

In order to reduce endogeneity problem that comes from measurement of error, previous studies have tried to employ more objective health measurements. Recent researches by Bratti and Mendola ; Alamand Liu used percentage days of sickness in the past month as the primary health indicators. Alam believed that days of sickness is a better indicator than self assessed health because it has objective measure.

In addition, short recall period used in this indicator minimizes the potential measurement of error which usually caused by respondents' inaccuracy in reporting past ill health events. Another objective health indicator that has been widely used in past literatures, most notably by Gertler and Gruber ; Nguyet and Mangyo ; Genoni ; Bratti and Mendolais activities of daily living ADL which has been found to be reliable and has a high degree of internal consistency in the United States and Southeast Asia Gertler and Gruber The measures are less susceptible to the type of measurement present in other self-reported indicators such as assessment about general health status and morbidities.

This is due to the fact that the questions are more specific and objective, pemimpin perdagangan pilihan binari banc debat example the question asks whether respondents are able to carry a heavy load for 20 meters which is more specific and objective rather than asking about their general health status.

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Walaupun TV arus perdana tidak akan menyiarkannamun beratus ratus pihak akan datang untuk merakam nya. Atas sebab itu RCI perlu di ujudkan. Sebenar nya itu ada lah sedikit peluru yang akan bakal di tembak oleh Nazri dan panglima Tun sudah menghidu nya.

Maka mereka tidak mahu ketika jutaan rakyat sedang di buai kisah dongeng Najib curi duit, tiba tiba cerita beralih kepada Mahathir pencuri wang rakyat melalui FOREX pula seperti yang di tulis oleh Raja Petra dengan berani nya hari ini. Maka itu lah sebab nya Debat lebih mencederakan pihak Mahathir lebih dari Najib. Malah mereka tanpa sedikit maklumat pun perasan bahawa Nazri pula yang takut dan tanpa tahu pihak panglima Tun yang ketakutan dan membuat kerja pembatalan.

Paling bodoh mengatakan paling tidak suka debat di adakan ia lah Tun Mahathir. Komen mcam budak kecik. Tak perlu tibai si budak ini panjang lebar. Budak atas tu cybertrooper bro. Fotex dan bmf salah dibawah akta mana? Kerugian bmf dan forex masuk akaun siapa? Macai bimbang nazri di hentam oleh tun madey dan 1mdb yg dirompak oleh najib akan diketahui lebih jelas Macai umno je percaya tulisan Raja Petra di blog yg dah tak laku tu.

Selepas dapat dedak umno dia terus hidup senang di London. Kau dapat ke BMW 7 series? Iskandar semak bakal di pecat emgkar arahan sabotaj pkr. Iskandar semak dah susun atrategy nak bubarkan semua cawangan pas di Selangor! Alamak amanah mcmna kalau geng Iskandar tanding tiket pkr? PAS masih bersama dengan PKR kerana 2 sebab, pertama kerana PAS masih ada tahaluf dan keputusan tahaluf adalah keputusan muktamar maka muktamarlah boleh membatalkannya.

Pasal itu dah ada beberapa usul kawasan untuk memutus tahaluf dengan PKR. Hari ini Lim Guan Eng mengeluarkan kenyataan Pas perlu segera menyatakan pendiriannya sama ada ingin kekal bersama Pakatan Harapan atau akan bekerjasama dengan Umno dan BN dalam pilihan raya akan datang.

Pening kepala saya memikirkan 'macam mana' dia orang berfikir! Mereka juga dilihat sedang membuat persediaan asas apabila mengumumkan keputusan itu baru-baru ini". LGE pun tak boleh nak beza antara keputusan dan usul muktamar. DAP sangat takut Pulau Pinang akan hilang daripada penguasaan mereka bila berlaku pertandingan 3 penjuru.

Sama2 assobiyyah dan taghut. Kita cabar Hj hadee bertanding di parlimen kepong jika betul ikhlas untuk Islam bkn untuk pangkat Dan elaun. Sape lagi nakkan PAS Sebab tu umno tak bagi kaluan kpd pas untuk kuasai 5 negeri dan 40 kerusi parlimen Wakakaka haramjadah punya pro najib toyol. Komen panjang lebar takde sapa nak baca hehehe. Bongok hoi ni ruang komen bukan blog sendiri. Nak makan dedak pun agak2 laa.

Kita nak dengar komen anjing DAPig je. Maki hamun depa halal toyiban kata ostad Kit Sial. Kikikiki barua singapork komunis losemah sudah panas.

Anon ,sumer org tau yg partai ajaran sesat aka pas ialah partai makan keliling. Jual agama dan ayat2 Allah bg dapat habuan duniawi. Label kan diri sendiri ulamak dan ustaz. Sendiri bg label Wei!!! Ular depan tak ambil kesah. Tun dan Najib tak penting, kehidupan rakyat harus dijaga, turunkan kos sara hidup. Sama ada Tun bersalah dizaman nya, dia harus bertanggung jawab. Begitu jua Najib terbukit dengan fakta, dan takut atas kemungkarannya, kini mengokong agensi2 kerajaan supaya melindunginya.

Najib wajib bercuti, sisatan terhadapnya perlu dijalankan. Buktikan tidak bersalah, jenyah sedang belaku wajib diutamaka. Kes Tun bolehkan selepas kes Najib. Itu baru dikata malaysia menghormati raja dan undang2. Raja2 wajib memain peranan. Dalam politik, kita kena maklum. Mmg mcm kandabg babi. Kalo ulamak politik boleh melebel ahli politik lain dgn berbagai gelaran, maka ulamak politik perlu terbuka berperang mulut dan saraf dgn pihak lain. Ini tidak, ulamak politik boleh balun orang lain, boleh kecohkan orang lain, ulamak politik dilindungi rahmat Allah.

Ahli politik lain layak dipijak2, layak disebut segala macam, pun x apa, sbb kita ni ulamak??? Lebai kampung bila berpolitik, disiplinnya ke laut juga. Yg boleh diiktiraf agamawan adalah golongan yg taat perintah tuhan. Tak payah perasan ulamak la wei Tak payah perasan ada doa ampuh la wei Dah kena bala banjir kuning pun tak sedar diri lagi Terus juga gondolkan balak Menjaga alam sekitar tu pun sunah juga PAS tu ulamak ke?

Haji Hadi pun suka maki hamun. Nak jadikan malaysia ni seperti pentadbiran taliban Iran? Agamawan tak payah sebok politik kita serahkan semua pada DAPig and the gang. Anon anda terkesan ke??!! Ada jugak barua losemah singapork komunis tersesat kt sini. G jauh2 ni najis berat ni. Lebai politik tidak sama kemuliaannya dengan ulama akhirat. Lebai politik jual ayat quran dan hadith untuk kepentingan dunia politik, berebut jawatan dan ghonimah seperti yang berlaku di Terengganu semasa mereka diberi amanah oleh rakyat untuk mentadbir selama satu penggal.

Sedarlah, bertaubatlah, kembalilah kpd perjuangan islam yg sebenar seperti yg diajar oleh Rasulullah SAW. Sape lagi peduli kan Pas? Akar umbi pas telah beri signal tolak olamak yg nak kerjasama dan ug dengan umno bila nik abduuh tersungkur dikelantan. PAS masih ramai penyokong dari murid2 sekolah pondok yang tak boleh mengundi. Kamu bersendirian jadi pemecah undi pun rakyat akan tolak. Lebih baik kamu kembali ke asal buat kerja dakwah itu pun kalau rakyat masih nak dengar daripada jadi parti makan keliling.

Si beduh tu sama baghalnya macam najip - jaja nama bapak sana sini. Ye, kamu faham pas tolak PH. Tapi selangor pun ada pan dan dap. Mohamed Azmin menerusi laman sosial Twitternya semalam menulis: Kawasan sendiri pun kalah tersungkur. Pas pulau pinang kuat sangat ke? Pru 13 ade calon pas hilang deposit Krisis mb selangir dulu pas nak ug dengan umno tapi gagal Pas dapat sokongan bukan islam dan golongan yg benci umno atas tiket PR.

Pru 14 pas akan kojol. Ya sejak dapat RM90 juta drp najib pas dah berlagak nak jadi superman!!! Pemuda Subang melihat kenyataan YB Azmin ini sebagai satu gaya pemikiran yang senteng kerana pemilihan jawatan dalaman PAS di peringkat kawasan-kawasan adalah urusan meyusun gerak atur pergerakan PAS di peringkat akar umbi itu sendiri dan sama sekali tidak absah jika ingin dinisbahkan kepada gerak kerja pilihan raya.

YB Azmin perlu menyedari hakikat bahawasanya PAS mempunyai kekuatan yang ampuh di peringkat akar umbi. Kesinisan kenyataan YB Azmin ini seolah-olah menjerut leher sendiri tatkala beliau menyedari hakikat bahawa PKR tidak ada kekuatan jentera di mana-mana kawasan sekalipun.

Pas oerasan dah kuat Kalau takut dilambung ombak, jangan berumah di tepi pantai Memang dapat 37 undi pun Subang tu kawasan DAP. Pemuda PAS Subang ada sokongan siapa. Berterus-terang sungguh Lim Kit Siang! Dengan kata lain, Islam perlu dicampak jauh-jauh daripada perjuangan mana-mana parti pembangkang yang mahu menguasai Putrajaya. Kata Kit Siang, bila ada parti pembangkang yang berpegang kepada Islam, mereka akan cenderung untuk mengatakan dan berpendirian bahawa jawatan Perdana Menteri perlu seseorang yang beragama Islam.

Islam dianggap oleh Kit Siang sebagai penghalang. Kit Siang mahu Islam kekal sebagai agama di atas kertas, bukan agama yang diamalkan, sama seperti yang berlaku di negara-negara komunis suatu masa dahulu.

Sedangkan Lim Kit Siang dan keluarganya hidup di kalangan orang Islam, bahkan telah diterima oleh orang Islam sebagai warganegara ini atas dasar jus soli walaupun hakikatnya mereka sebenarnya tidak pernah berminat untuk menjadi warganegara negara Melayu-Islam ini kecuali setelah Britain enggan mengambil mereka sebagai warganegara United Kingdom pada tahun Dan kerana itulah, sehingga kini mereka termasuklah Lim Kit Siang tidak pernah mempunyai semangat keMalaysian, sebaliknya hanya mahu merampas kuasa dan berkuasa.

Ketika negara ini dalam keadaan darurat, dia dan ahli keluarganya, tidak seorang pun yang terlibat dalam mempertahankan negara ini. Tetapi selepas merdeka dan aman, mereka muncul kononnya untuk menyelamatkan rakyat Malaysia. Sama seperti pendirian pemimpin Cina Kristian Jakarta Indonesia yang terkenal dengan panggilan AHOK, selagi bangsa Indonesia masih berpegang kepada Al-Quran Surah Al-Maidah jamgan melantik kafir sebagai pemimpin selagi itulah Indonesia tidak akan mampu menyaingi kemajuan di dunia.

Kerana terbukti kita telah tewas sejak ratusan tahun ketika kita berhadapan dengan umat Islam di dalam peperangan bersenjata. Tetapi untuk mengalahkan mereka, perangilah mereka di sudut aqidah Islam mereka, kerana di situlah terletaknya punca kekuatan Umat Islam. Tugas kita kini adalah mencabut Al-Qur'an hati mereka, baru kita akan menang dan menguasai mereka.

Sesungguhnya syaitan itu mengajak hizb golongan nya agar mereka menjadi penghuni neraka. Jual agama dan ayat2 Allah demi keuntungan dunia yg sedikit. Lepas label kan diri sendiri ulamak!!! Anon tak ada sape label pro.